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2019城市绿化向“上”升级,全国立体绿化雷动风行

2019-10-27 16:41

城市立体绿化是城市绿化的重要组成部分,在基本不占用土地的前提下,可起到枫桓绿化空间、减少扬尘和噪声污染、改善空气质量、缓解热岛效应、降低建筑能耗等多方面作用。

随着城市建设的发展,立体绿化逐渐成为增加城市绿量、改善城市生态环境的有效措施,全国各大城市都开始将绿化从平面向立体发展,并出台各种政策给予支持,推进立体绿化的进一步发展。

浙江省住房和城乡建设厅近日出台城市立体绿化工作指导意见,提出新建建筑实施屋顶绿化、既有建筑开展屋顶绿化,将立体绿化的建设要求纳入土地出让条件、规划条件、建设条件。

按照要求,新建公共建筑(政府机关、学校、医院、文化体育场所等)条件适宜的屋顶宜实施绿化,实施面积应不小于屋顶可绿化面积的60%。其他新建建筑中层数少于12层(含12层)、高度低于40米(含40米)、产权明晰、屋顶坡度小于15度的建筑,宜实施屋顶绿化。省住房城乡建设厅会同相关部门将立体绿化的建设要求纳入土地出让条件、规划条件、建设条件,鼓励结合既有建筑改造等项目实施,对建成年限低于20年且符合建筑安全要求的建筑开展屋顶绿化。

新改建城市桥梁等设施将配套立体绿化

在墙体垂直绿化方面,指导意见要求除有保密、安全等特殊要求的单位外,城市主干道、城市中心区等临街实体围墙,城市公园、风景名胜区、旅游景点等重要节点的公共建(构)筑物墙体,宜种植爬墙虎、凌霄、紫藤等攀援植物实施垂直绿化。新建透空栏杆等宜同步实施立体绿化。在保证安全的前提下,鼓励对公共建筑、居住建筑等墙体、阳台实施立体绿化。可酌情推广模块式墙体垂直绿化系统,尽可能扩绿增绿。

在市政设施立体绿化方面,新建、改建的城市桥梁等市政基础设施,宜将立体绿化列入配套绿化工程,与主体工程同步设计、同步施工、同步验收;已建成的桥梁等市政工程在符合规范及满足安全要求的前提下,宜逐步实施立体绿化改造。城市快速路的匝道挡墙、外侧桥柱、声屏障及城市道路围栏等市政设施,宜尽量实施墙面绿化、桥柱绿化、围栏绿化、沿口绿化(高架沿口、人行天桥沿口)。

各地要积极开展城市立体绿化建设,打造一批精品示范项目,形成立体绿化建设管理的样板。省住房城乡建设厅组织开展全省城市立体绿化示范项目评价,将城市立体绿化示范项目纳入《山东省建筑市场主体信用评价导则》加分项,作为全省园林绿化相关专业企业信用评价和招投标的参考依据。各地要积极开展城市屋顶绿化、垂直绿化等专业技术培训及科研课题研究,推广新技术、新材料、新品种。要积极培养屋顶绿化、垂直绿化专业骨干企业,促进产业发展。

在激励政策方面,指导意见要求在省级园林城市(县城)评价及动态管理中,将立体绿化工作情况作为重要评价指标并视情给予加分,同时作为园林单位(小区)评选的重要依据。新建民用建筑实施屋顶绿化、垂直绿化的,按照有关规定折算为附属绿化面积。新建、改建建筑实施立体绿化较好的,在一、二星级绿色建筑评选中予以加分。鼓励各地出台激励政策,对屋顶绿化建设经费实行“以奖代补”,从城市建设资金中列支专项经费用于立体绿化建设、管理。

《办法》中指出,对于新建城市门户和重要交通节点区域、高架桥、人行天桥、立体交通、环卫设施等市政公用设施要求强制实施立体绿化。

杭州市城市管理和综合执法局在对《办法》的解读中表示,《办法》规范了绿化指标,新建公共建(构)筑物实施屋顶绿化或架空层绿化,实际绿化面积不宜少于屋顶或架空层可绿化面积的60%;新建公共建(构)筑物以及市政设施实施墙(面)体绿化、桥体绿化、棚架绿化、窗阳台绿化、硬质边坡绿化的指标,实际绿化面积不宜少于载体外立面可绿化面积的20%。

此外,市、区绿化行政主管部门应当将立体绿化任务指标纳入评价考核体系,定期组织专项考评,并按照指标要求对市属单位指标和各区指标完成情况进行考核验收。

新建工程屋顶绿化覆土,3米以上按9成折算抵扣

《办法》细化了具体的折算标准,首先对折算标准进行上限规定:新建建设工程项目立体绿化面积折算为配套绿化用地面积总额的比例,商业服务类不得超过50%,其他类不得超过20%。

同时,《办法》规定了屋顶绿化和架空层绿化的折算标准,覆土厚度在3米及以上的,按90%折算配套绿化用地面积;覆土厚度在1。5米及以上不足3米的,按80%折算配套绿化用地面积;覆土厚度在1米及以上不足1。5米的,按60%折算配套绿化用地面积;覆土厚度在0。5米及以上不足1米的,按50%折算配套绿化用地面积;覆土厚度在0。3米及以上不足0。5米的,按30%折算配套绿化用地面积;覆土厚度在0。1米及以上不足0。3米的,按10%折算配套绿化用地面积。

为鼓励社会各界共同推进立体绿化,《办法》指出,对社会组织、企业、个人投资建设的新建建(构)筑物,市政设施的立体绿化在配套绿化用地面积和绿化率之外,以及改建的建(构)筑物市政设施的立体绿化,应当给予经费补贴奖励。

Urban three-dimensional greening is an important part of urban greening. On the premise of basically not occupying land, it can play various functions such as greening space of maple huan, reducing dust and noise pollution, improving air quality, relieving heat island effect and reducing building energy consumption.

With the development of urban construction, three-dimensional greening has gradually become an effective measure to increase the amount of urban green and improve the urban ecological environment. All major cities in China have started to develop three-dimensional greening from a horizontal perspective, and introduced a variety of policies to support the further development of three-dimensional greening.

Zhejiang provincial department of housing and urban-rural development recently issued guidelines on urban three-dimensional greening, suggesting that new buildings should carry out roof greening and existing buildings should carry out roof greening, and that the construction requirements of three-dimensional greening should be incorporated into land transfer conditions, planning conditions and construction conditions.

According to the requirements, the new public building (government organs, schools, hospitals, cultural sports venues, etc.) suitable conditions of the roof should be implemented greening, the implementation area should not be less than 60% of the roof greening area. In other new buildings, the number of middle layer is less than 12 (including 12 floors), the height is less than 40 meters (including 40 meters), the property right is clear, and the roof slope is less than 15 degrees, the roof greening should be implemented. The provincial housing and urban-rural development department, together with relevant departments, will incorporate the construction requirements of three-dimensional greening into the land transfer conditions, planning conditions and construction conditions, and encourage the implementation of projects such as the renovation of existing buildings to carry out roof greening for buildings with the completion age of less than 20 years and in line with the building safety requirements.

New urban Bridges and other facilities will be supporting three-dimensional greening

In the wall, vertical greening, guidance in addition to the confidentiality, security and other special requirements of the unit, urban main road, the city street entities such as walls, city parks, scenic spots, tourist attractions, and other important nodes of public building, wall, appropriate planting parthenocissus tricuspidata, dedicated, wisteria climbing plants such as the implementation of vertical greening. New permeable railing and other appropriate synchronous implementation of three-dimensional greening. On the premise of ensuring safety, three-dimensional greening of walls and balconies of public buildings and residential buildings is encouraged. The modular wall vertical greening system can be extended as appropriate to expand the green as far as possible.

In the aspect of three-dimensional greening of municipal facilities, it is advisable to include three-dimensional greening in supporting greening projects for newly built or rebuilt municipal Bridges and other municipal infrastructure, and design, construction and acceptance of three-dimensional greening should be synchronized with the main project. The completed Bridges and other municipal projects should be carried out gradually on the premise of conforming to the standards and meeting the safety requirements. In urban expressway, it is advisable to implement the greening of wall, bridge column, fence and mouth (viaduct and footbridge) for the retaining wall, outer bridge column, sound barrier, urban road fence and other municipal facilities.

All localities should actively carry out urban three-dimensional greening construction, build a number of high-quality demonstration projects, and form a model of three-dimensional greening construction management. The provincial housing and urban-rural development department organized and carried out the evaluation of provincial urban three-dimensional greening demonstration projects, and included the urban three-dimensional greening demonstration projects as additional points in the "guidelines for credit evaluation of construction market subjects in shandong province", as the reference basis for the credit evaluation and bidding of professional enterprises related to landscape architecture in the province. All localities should actively carry out technical training and scientific research on urban roof greening and vertical greening, and promote new technologies, new materials and new varieties. To actively cultivate the roof greening, vertical greening professional backbone enterprises, promote industrial development.

In terms of incentive policies, the guidance requires that in the evaluation and dynamic management of provincial garden city (county), the three-dimensional greening work should be regarded as an important evaluation index and awarded additional points according to the situation, and at the same time, it should be regarded as an important basis for the selection of garden unit (community). If the roof greening and vertical greening are implemented in the new civil building, the ancillary greening area shall be converted into according to relevant regulations. New and rebuilt buildings with better three-dimensional greening will be awarded extra points in the selection of one or two star green buildings. We will encourage local governments to introduce incentive policies to subsidize rooftop greening construction funds with awards, and allocate special funds from urban construction funds for three-dimensional greening construction and management.

According to the measures, urban public facilities such as urban gateways and important traffic nodes, viaducts, pedestrian overpasses, three-dimensional traffic and sanitation facilities should be mandatory.

According to the interpretation of the measures by hangzhou municipal administration of urban management and comprehensive law enforcement, the measures regulate the greening index, and the actual greening area of new public buildings (structures) should not be less than 60% of the greening area of the roof or the overhead layer. The actual greening area should not be less than 20% of the greening area of the external facade of the carrier.

In addition, the municipal and district greening administrative departments shall incorporate three-dimensional greening task indicators into the evaluation and assessment system, regularly organize special assessment, and carry out assessment and acceptance of the completion of indicators of municipal units and districts according to the requirements of indicators.

New project roof greening overlaying soil, 3 meters above the 9 percent deduction

The measures specify specific conversion standards. First, the upper limit of conversion standards is stipulated: the proportion of three-dimensional green area of new construction projects converted into the total area of supporting green land shall not exceed 50% for commercial services and 20% for other categories.

At the same time, "method" stipulated the conversion standard of roof greening and overhead layer greening, covering soil thickness in 3 meters and above, according to 90% conversion of supporting green land area; If the thickness of overburden is 1.5 meters or less than 3 meters, the supporting green land area shall be converted to 80%; If the overburden thickness is 1 meter or more than 1.5 meters, the supporting green land area shall be converted to 60%; If the thickness of overburden is 0.5 meters or less than 1 meter, the supporting green land area shall be converted to 50%. If the thickness of overburden is 0.3 meters or less than 0.5 meters, the area of supporting green land shall be converted to 30%. If the thickness of overburden is 0.1m or less than 0.3m, the area of supporting green land shall be converted to 10%.

To encourage the social from all walks of life to jointly promote the stereo virescence, "method", points out that the social organization, enterprise, individual investment of the construction of the new building, material, municipal facilities stereo virescence in supporting green land area and green area, and the reconstruction of stereo virescence, content of municipal facilities, funds allowance should be given reward.

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